Splines are ridges or teeths on a drive shaft that mesh with grooves in a mating piece and transfer torque to it, maintaining the angular correspondence between them.
Drive shafts on vehicles and power take-offs use splines to transmit torque and rotation and allow for changes in length.
There are two types of splines, internal and external. External splines may be broached, shaped (for example on a gear shaping machine), milled, hobbed, rolled, ground or extruded. There are fewer methods available for manufacturing internal splines due to accessibility restrictions. Methods include those listed above with the exception of hobbing (no access). Often, with internal splines, the splined portion of the part may not have a through-hole, which precludes use of a pull / push broach or extrusion-type method. Also, if the part is small it may be difficult to fit a milling or grinding tool into the area where the splines are machined.
output shaft and input shaft of the portal axle are mod- eled as the same gear shaft which shares the same design pa- rameters. The gear shaft is modeled using the Autodesk Inven- tor 2010 Student Edition as shown in Fig. 3. The length of the shaft is 200 mm and the diameter is 30 mm. The idler gear, which is meshed between the input gear and output gear, is model with the same shaft diameter and having a shorter length of 100 mm. The idler gear is positioned between the input gear and output gear to offset the vertical distance and allow only one
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