A gear ratio is a measure of how many times one gear spins compared to another one (something we'll get into later). Gearing up refers to decreasing the gear ratio, and gearing down increases it. When we start discussing motors, we'll be referring to the Kv of the motor, which is a short way of referencing the motor's RPM per volt applied to the motor (when spinning without a load). The tooth count is how many teeth are on the gear, and the pitch of the gear refers to the number of teeth per inch of the gear's diameter. There are a few common sizes we use in R/C, such as 32-pitch (32P), 48-pitch (48P), and 64-pitch (64P). There is also a metric variant on pitch, the module, and the common sizes there are 1Mod, 0.8Mod, and 0.6Mod. It's worth knowing 32-pitch and 0.8Mod are the same thing, and can be used interchangeably. There are some that believe 48-pitch and 0.6Mod are also identical, but that is incorrect — while they may be very similar, over time you will notice some wearing on the teeth where they don't fit together exactly right.
A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut teeth or, in the case of a cogwheel, inserted teeth (called cogs), which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a power source. Gears almost always produce a change in torque, creating a mechanical advantage, through their gear ratio, and thus may be considered a simple machine. The teeth on the two meshing gears all have the same shape. Two or more meshing gears, working in a sequence, are called a gear train or a transmission. A gear can mesh with a linear toothed part, called a rack, producing translationinstead of rotation.
The double-lead cylindrical worm drive has the characteristic that the transmission ratio remains unchanged when the lateral clearance is changed by the axial movement of the worm.This makes the worn worm gear pair reduce the side clearance after repair and restore the motion stability.
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